Empirical Economic Bulletin, An Undergraduate Journal


This paper investigates the numerous variables that influence carbon emissions in selected Asian and European countries. The study examines the countries with the highest gross domestic product (GDP) in each region, considering the possible impact of economic growth on greenhouse gas emissions. The study also analyzes the role of other variables such as tourism, foreign direct investment (FDI), ecological footprint level (EFL), and agricultural output. The ecological footprint level is modeled by global hectare or the countries’ gha, which is a measure of the impact of human activities on the environment. The study estimates tourism and FDI reduce emissions, while economic growth, agriculture, and ecologic footprint level increase carbon emissions.