Regulation of Inflammatory Monocyte/Macrophage Recruitment from the Bone Marrow during Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection: Role for Type I Interferons in Localized Induction of CCR2 Ligands
The American Association of Immunologists
Journal of Immunology
Monocytes/macrophages are critical early innate immune responders during murine CMV (MCMV) infection. It has been established that inflammatory monocyte/macrophages are released from the bone marrow and into the peripheral blood before entry into infected tissue sites. We previously reported a role for IFN-α/β in promotion of CCR2-mediated recruitment of monocyte/macrophages into the liver in response to MCMV infection. However, the mechanisms that support the migration of monocyte/macrophages from the bone marrow and into the peripheral blood under conditions of MCMV infection have not been elucidated. Herein, we demonstrate an accumulation of monocyte/macrophages in the bone marrow of MCMV-infected CCR2-deficient mice, whereas circulating monocyte/macrophages are profoundly diminished. The CCR2 ligands MCP-1, MCP-3, and MCP-5 are detected in bone marrow and in serum from MCMV-infected mice. Furthermore, bone marrow leukocytes from naive mice produce high levels of MCP-1 and MCP-5, and moderate levels of MCP-3, when stimulated with recombinant IFN-α in culture. We identify bone marrow F4/80+ cells as major producers of MCP-1, MCP-3, and MCP-5. Moreover, induction of CCR2 ligands is dependent on IFN-α/β-mediated signals and MCMV infection. Taken together, the results reveal a critical role for inflammatory cytokines in stimulating production of CCR2-binding chemokines from F4/80+ cells in the bone marrow, and they suggest that local production of chemokines supports monocyte/macrophage egress from the bone marrow into the blood during a virus infection.