Regulation of Inflammatory Monocyte/Macrophage Recruitment from the Bone Marrow during Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection: Role for Type I Interferons in Localized Induction of CCR2 Ligands

Document Type



Published by The American Association of Immunologists in the Journal of Immunology, volume 183 no. 4, 2009. Users may access this article here.


The American Association of Immunologists

Publication Source

Journal of Immunology


Monocytes/macrophages are critical early innate immune responders during murine CMV (MCMV) infection. It has been established that inflammatory monocyte/macrophages are released from the bone marrow and into the peripheral blood before entry into infected tissue sites. We previously reported a role for IFN-α/β in promotion of CCR2-mediated recruitment of monocyte/macrophages into the liver in response to MCMV infection. However, the mechanisms that support the migration of monocyte/macrophages from the bone marrow and into the peripheral blood under conditions of MCMV infection have not been elucidated. Herein, we demonstrate an accumulation of monocyte/macrophages in the bone marrow of MCMV-infected CCR2-deficient mice, whereas circulating monocyte/macrophages are profoundly diminished. The CCR2 ligands MCP-1, MCP-3, and MCP-5 are detected in bone marrow and in serum from MCMV-infected mice. Furthermore, bone marrow leukocytes from naive mice produce high levels of MCP-1 and MCP-5, and moderate levels of MCP-3, when stimulated with recombinant IFN-α in culture. We identify bone marrow F4/80+ cells as major producers of MCP-1, MCP-3, and MCP-5. Moreover, induction of CCR2 ligands is dependent on IFN-α/β-mediated signals and MCMV infection. Taken together, the results reveal a critical role for inflammatory cytokines in stimulating production of CCR2-binding chemokines from F4/80+ cells in the bone marrow, and they suggest that local production of chemokines supports monocyte/macrophage egress from the bone marrow into the blood during a virus infection.