Document Type


First Faculty Advisor

Sukki Yoon

Second Faculty Advisor

Kacy Kim


ad copies; rivalry appeals; consumer product types; distinctiveness & inclusiveness social needs; GLOMO


Bryant University

Rights Management



The main objective of the research is to study how convenience and shopping products impact how consumers react to rivalry appeals in advertisements. The authors examine the effectiveness of rivalry appeals in advertisements and how they are impacted by the product type considered by consumers. In two studies, a 2 (prime: distinctiveness vs. inclusiveness) x 2 (message: competition vs. collaboration) ANOVA methodology was conducted on survey data. In Study 1, participants primed with distinctiveness (inclusiveness) and considering convenience products experienced an assimilation effect where they preferred competitive (collaborative) rivalry appeals. In Study 2, participants primed with distinctiveness (inclusiveness) and considering shopping products experienced a contrast effect where they preferred collaborative (competitive) rivalry appeals. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed where the research contributes to the Optimal Distinctiveness Theory, global/local processing style model (GLOMO), and consumer product type literature fields. The results of the research show that rivalry appeals in advertisements can be effectively used by marketer as long as they realize that for convenience products consumers will have an assimilation effect reaction and that for shopping products consumers will have a contrast effect reaction.

Included in

Marketing Commons