Document Type


First Faculty Advisor

Kacy Kim

Second Faculty Advisor

Diya Das


consumer behavior; motivation; benefit appeals; social exclusion


Bryant University

Rights Management



This study aims to analyze how consumers perceive advertisements in the volunteer tourism industry when influenced by social exclusion and benefit appeals. The authors examined feelings, attitudes, and behavioral intentions of consumers in reference to an international volunteer trip advertisement. Based on data from a sample (n=259), findings demonstrated that consumers who felt more socially excluded responded more favorably to other-benefit appeals, opposed to self-benefit appeals. An interaction effect was discovered when looking at the degree of sympathy that participants felt regarding the advertisements. Participants who were socially excluded felt more sympathetic after viewing the other-benefit appeal advertisements, whereas those who were socially included felt more sympathetic when viewing self-benefit focused advertisements. A main effect was also discovered when looking at levels of self-confidence of the participants. It was found that regardless of social exclusion, participants were more likely to feel self-confident when they were exposed to other-benefit messaging. Finally, it was also discovered that regardless of social exclusion or benefit appeal, there were significant generational differences within the responses with Millennials and Generation Y being on the extreme ends of the spectrum.