Document Type



thorax disease; chest X-ray; Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN); image processing; classification

Identifier Data



Rights Management

© 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.


Thorax disease is a life-threatening disease caused by bacterial infections that occur in the lungs. It could be deadly if not treated at the right time, so early diagnosis of thoracic diseases is vital. The suggested study can assist radiologists in more swiftly diagnosing thorax disorders and in the rapid airport screening of patients with a thorax disease, such as pneumonia. This paper focuses on automatically detecting and localizing thorax disease using chest X-ray images. It provides accurate detection and localization using DenseNet-121 which is foundation of our proposed framework, called Z-Net. The proposed framework utilizes the weighted cross-entropy loss function (W-CEL) that manages class imbalance issue in the ChestX-ray14 dataset, which helped in achieving the highest performance as compared to the previous models. The 112,120 images contained in the ChestX-ray14 dataset (60,412 images are normal, and the rest contain thorax diseases) were preprocessed and then trained for classification and localization. This work uses computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system that supports development of highly accurate and precise computer-aided systems. We aim to develop a CAD system using a deep learning approach. Our quantitative results show high AUC scores in comparison with the latest research works. The proposed approach achieved the highest mean AUC score of 85.8%. This is the highest accuracy documented in the literature for any related model.