The Effect of the Arab Spring on the Performance of Islamic and Conventional Banks in Egypt: Which Model Performs Better Amidst Crisis?
This empirical study analyzes financial institutions and performance in times of external crisis and whether a difference in performance between Islamic (IBs) and conventional (CBs) bank models exists. Egypt surrounding the Arab Spring (2009-2013) is taken as a case study, comparing 6 CBs and 3 IBs. Financial ratio analysis is the main method employed, allowing performance to be measured by efficiency, capital adequacy, profitability, solvency, liquidity, and credit risk performance. Due to small sample size, the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test and effect size analysis assess the significance of the ratio analysis results. Results show CBs have superior performance in all indicators other than Cost-Income and NIM. Efficiency performance for both models were equally volatile or alternately stable with progression through the crisis, while IBs increased capital adequacy and solvency during the crisis. IBs profitability was significantly negatively impacted by the crisis, other than related to NIM, while CBs increased profitability rates. IBs liquidity worsened, then improved midway through the crisis while CBs stabilized liquidity rates throughout. IBs improved credit risk midway through the crisis while CBs declined. Nonparametric results hold observed differences are insignificant and have weak effect size for all but the TENL ratio.